Activity 4 - Note Taking Practice
As a cybersecurity engineer, it is important to take a lot of notes. These are helpful for future reference to understand how the hack happened. Let’s step up our workspace!
What if I want to create a new directory?
To practice creating a new directory, use the command
mkdir in the following format:
Let’s make a directory called
files by typing the command below:
As you can see, now when
ls -l is run, an additional directory named
What can you do with these files?
One example of how you can manipulate a file or directory is by moving it to another location. This is accomplished by the move command,
mv. Let’s practice by moving the
Music directory into the
Type in the command listed below:
mv Music/ Documents/
Now type in
ls -l one more time and look at the output.
You should see that the directory
Music no longer appears, because it was moved into the
We can see that it moved into
Documents by using the
ls command with an added directory path.
ls -l Documents/
mv one more time by moving it back.
mv Documents/Music/ .
This moves the
Music directory from the
Documents directory, back to our current directory, denoted by
. The period, or dot, is used in commands to denote the current directory. Typing
ls -l one more time shows
Music has returned to this directory.
Great job, you now know how to move files around. We will use this knowledge soon to recover from the hack.
What if I want to create a new file?
To create a file we can use the
touch command. The touch command creates an empty file with no data.
Try the command below to create a file named
Now when we type
ls -l we can see that the file has been created.
What if I want to add data to the file?
An empty file doesn’t have much use, so lets add some data to it, like our name.
To open the file for editing, we will use the
vim command. Vim is an editor that allows us to add, remove and change the data in a file.
Type in the command below to edit file1:
We are now in the Vim editor. Press
i to enter insert mode. Now type in
nuvi and press
esc to exit insert mode. Finally type in
:wq and press enter. The colon tells Vim you are entering a command. The w and q then tell vim you want to write the changes you made and quit.
esc then type
:wq. You will need this every time you open
Once again type
ls -l and you can see that file1 now has 5 bytes of content, instead of 0 when it was blank.
Definition: A byte is a unit of measurement for data. At the lowest level, computers use what’s known as a “bit”, which is a single unit of data whose value can only be “0” or “1”, to represent information. A byte is a collection of 8 bits.
One last thing. Let’s move our new file into our new directory.
Type in the following command:
mv file1 files
Congratulations, you have created, edited, and moved your first file! Now let’s secure our system!